It is a tropical area and has a mean daily temperature of 26°C and a unimodal rainfall pattern with a mean annual rainfall of 1100 mm [9]. there are several Indian peanut varieties, including Java, Bold, TJ, Java Long, G20, K6, Mathadi, J24 and Western 44. Assuming the level of production of 34 million Mt of groundnut in year 2000, there would be about 6.26 million metric tonnes of groundnut proteins (after correcting for the kernel yield). Combined application of 30 kg P ha−1 and BR 3267 increased the nodule numbers in Obolo, Oboshie and Samnut 22 by 144%, 188% and 56%, respectively over their respective uninoculated plots. Five plants were randomly selected from the harvested lot and their pods were detached, counted and the number recorded. “We are selling groundnut to the retailers at rates between Tk 3,600 and Tk 4,000 per maund depending on varieties and qualities, after purchasing those from farmers and local markets,” he added. China is the world's leading producer of peanuts, accounting for nearly 41% of the total output. The higher pod yield by Samnut 22 compared with Obolo and Oboshie might not be due to a bigger seed size but probably due to a higher number of seeds per pod. The average productivity of groundnut in Asia is 1739 kg/ha. Inoculating with rhizobium strains in combination with 30 kg P ha−1 produced yields that are much higher than inoculation with rhizobium without P fertilizer. However, poor soil fertility and lack of improved varieties are the predominant production constraints groundnut farmers face in the region although plant breeders have contributed immensely through variety improvement to curb the situation. According to [5], P enhanced the efficiency of photosynthesis in plants and increased branch numbers and pods per plant thereby contributing to the yield of plants. “The average rainfall for our area is 500mm/year, but we’ve … There has been appreciable increase in the area (68.5%) and production (163%) of the crop between 1950-51 and 1998-99. The soil samples were analysed for the following parameters: pH (H2O/soil 2 : 1), organic carbon (Walkley–Black), total N (Kjeldahl distillation), CEC (NH4OAc), available phosphorus (Bray-I), exchangeable K (NH4OAc), bulk density (3 × 100 cm3 metal cans per profile depth and replication) and particle size distribution (hydrometric method) [10, 11] (Table 1). Combined application of each of BR 3267 and USDA 3456 with 30 kg P ha−1 gave the highest nodule dry weight in relation to the uninoculated varieties. The addition of rhizobium inoculants helps boost the number of nodules per plant which in turn increases the potential of N2 fixation with the help of P fertilizer [14]. In other parts of the world they are boiled, either in the shell or unshelled. Influence of rhizobium inoculants and phosphorus fertilizer on days to 50% flowering and nodule dry weight of three groundnut varieties. The warm and temperate climate of the state greatly support the peanut production. Their work further revealed that combined application of 45 kg P ha−1 and rhizobium inoculant was more profitable than the application of only 45 kg P ha−1. Farmers are expanding groundnut farming every year after getting repeated bumper production and lucrative market prices in the last 12 years. The results agree with the findings of [13] who reported that inoculating soybean with rhizobium reduced the days to 50% flowering compared to the uninoculated plots. There was no interaction between the three factors, namely groundnut variety, phosphorus and inoculant on pod yield. The field was previously planted to maize for three years. The cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) probably originated in Bolivia at the base of the Andes (Krapovickas 1968) extending into north Argentina (Ramanatha Rao 1988). The variety main effect was significant () in terms of seed weight. Groundnut were sown in 20.09 million ha spread over 85 countries with the production of 22.59 million tonnes (t) and an average productivity of 1.12 t ha-1 (FAO 1989). Despite the numerous benefits rhizobium inoculation brings to crop plants and agricultural soils, it is faced with unfavourable factors such as erratic rainfall, soil temperature and low-soil pH. Here are some points to consider: 1. groundnut production Higher mandi prices for kharif crop, likely bumper rabi harvest spell gains for farmers: Crisil Research In crop year 2018-19, farm profits jumped 26% on-year over a low base of the preceding year (2017-18), which had seen per-hectare profits decline due to low mandi prices following a bumper crop. Their annual production is far more than the area this country has occupied. Going above 30 kg P ha−1 would probably not be economically viable for the groundnut farmers in the study area. Groundnut yields obtained by farmers in northern Ghana are generally low due to low soil fertility resulting from continuous cropping coupled with low use of external inputs. Inoculation of legumes with rhizobia generally triggers plant growth, development and yield and it is normally used as a substitute for mineral nitrogen fertilizer which is often costly [3]. In 2016, the country consumed 17.3 million metric tons, translating to a consumption per capita of 12.11 kg against an estimated 13.45 kg. The production estimates for groundnuts in South Africa for the 2020 season has been revised downward by more than 16% due to the drought experienced during the past year in certain parts of the summer grain production regions, according to Luan van der Walt, Grain SA economist. Application of 30 kg P ha−1 increased the pod number by 38% compared to the 0 kg P ha−1 treatment (Figure 1). The combined application of 30 kg P ha−1 and BR 3267 produced the highest nodule number of 69 in Oboshie which was statistically similar to the nodule number produced by Samnut 22 fertilized with 30 kg P ha−1 (Table 3). All Rights Reserved. The total number of nodules from the ten plants was divided by 10 to obtain the number of nodules per plant. Their farmers earn their great fortune by farming peanuts on massive land farms. Production forecast The drought has had a marked effect on the groundnut industry. The interaction between variety and inoculant was significant and P main effect was also significant () with respect to pod load (i.e. P enhances photosynthetic activities of plants and also acts as an energy source for the rhizobium bacteria. Recent World Production, Markets, and Trade Reports . This was a decrease from the previous fiscal year. Phosphorus was applied in the form of triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) by side placement two weeks after sowing. Seeds of the test groundnut varieties were inoculated as follows: 30 ml of 20% sugar solution was sprinkled onto 1 kg of groundnut seeds and mixed thoroughly after which 5 g of inoculant was added to it and stirred uniformly to ensure adequate coating of every seed with the inoculant material. However, there were no significant effects () with regard to P main effect, inoculant main effect and their interactions. The seed weights of both Obolo and Oboshie were respectively approximately twice that of Samnut 22 (Figure 4). Nigeria accounts for cassava production of up to 20 per cent of the world, about 34 per cent of Africa’s and about 46 per cent of West Africa’s. The uninoculated unfertilized (0 kg P ha−1) plots produced the lowest yield of 1074 kg ha−1 (Figure 3). A. L. Page, R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney. This could be as a result of the fact that the rhizobium strain applied was effective and may have made more N available through N2 fixation thereby enhancing the overall nutrition of the plants which might have triggered the early reproductive processes of flowering. However, China is the largest producer of groundnut and accounts for 37% of world production, followed by India with 22%. Gujarat: Groundnut production estimated to be higher this Kharif season According to the First Advance Estimate of the Gujarat government, groundnut production in the state is likely to remain 54.64 lakh tonnes (lt) this Kharif season. The land was ploughed and harrowed with a tractor and manually ridged. 2A Media Limited. “The DAE has fixed targets of producing 12,168 tons of groundnut from 6,160 hectares of land for Rangpur agriculture region and 23,129 tons from 11,570 hectares for Dinajpur agriculture region in the division this time,” Moniruzzaman added. Along with UGA Extension peanut economist Adam Rabinowitz and UGA Extension cotton economist Don Shurley, Smith has produced a relative row crop production cost and expected net returns analysis for cotton, peanuts, corn, soybeans and grain sorghum for 2018. Obolo had the highest seed weight of 85.8 g with the lowest weight of 44.2 g obtained from Samnut 22 (Figure 4). This value was averaged over the five plants to obtain the pod load which is defined as the average number of pods produced by one plant. All inoculated P-fertilized plants flowered earlier than the plants without both P fertilizer and inoculation, with combined applications of BR 3267 and 30 kg P ha−1 reducing the days to 50% flowering by six days compared with the no P uninoculated plot (Table 2). In many countries groundnuts are consumed as peanut butter or crushed and used for the groundnut oil or simply consumed as a confectionary snack roasted, salted or in sweets. However, the rhizobium is host-specific as certain species can only infect specific legumes. Thus there should be about 2.6 to 2.8 g of groundnut protein available per capita per day in It has been established that application of P fertilizer stimulates node and pod formation in legumes [18] so the 30 kg P ha−1 may have caused this increase via increased pod node formation. In 2017/2018, it produced approximately 18.5 million metric tons of the nuts or 41% of the total world’s production and exported about 7%, consuming the rest. Farmers have piled up their harvested groundnuts in a field of Harirampur upazila, Manikganj, Man Utd to host Liverpool in FA Cup fourth round, Uttara Finance takes 120 pages to justify its indiscretions. P fertilizer cum rhizobium inoculant also had a great influence on the pod yield of groundnut. India is the second largest producer of groundnuts in the world. Groundnut varieties differ from size, colour and shape. The United States is the third largest producer (2018), and exports about 20-25% of production. Box TL 52, Tamale, Ghana, N. Ahmad, M. Rahim, and U. Khan, “Evaluation of different varieties, seed rates and row spacing of groundnut, planted under agro-ecological conditions of Malakand division,”, M. M. Buri, R. N. Iassaka, F. Hedeto, and W. Toshiyuki, “Comparison of soil nutrient status of some rice growing environments in the major agro-ecological zones of Ghana,”, E. V. Tairo and P. A. Ndakidemi, “Possible benefits of rhizobial inoculation and phosphorus supplementation on nutrition, growth and economic sustainability in grain legumes,”, J. Kevin Vessey, “Benefits of inoculating legume crops with rhizobia in the northern Great Plains,”, G. Nadia, “Influence of molybdenum on groundnut production under different nitrogen levels,”, M. N. Uma and G. Sathiyavani, “Solubilization of phosphate by, G. W. Mmbaga, K. M. Mtei, and P. A. Ndakidemi, “Extrapolations on the use of rhizobium inoculants supplemented with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on growth and nutrition of legumes,”, B. Ahiabor, S. Lamptey, S. Yeboah, and V. Bahari, “Application of phosphorus fertilizer on soybean [(, M. A. Alua, K. Peprah, and G. T. W. Achana, “Climate change implications for crop farming in Ghana’s semi-arid Guinea Savanna,”. The data will be made available upon request via mkasante08@yahoo.co.uk. This notwithstanding, [6] reported that P is a limiting factor in plant nutrition as a result of the deficit of available soluble phosphate in the soil. The result obtained is in agreement with the work done by [22] who reported that combined applications of P and rhizobium inoculant enhanced straw weight of soybean and other legumes. Will polling return and decide next BGMEA president? The country located in West Africa, Ghana is the land of groundnuts. With the consistently increasing demand of groundnut in the food industries and export of the products abroad, farmers are showing keen interests in enhancing groundnut cultivation on main lands and char areas to reap more benefits than other crops. Combined application of 30 kg P ha−1 and BR 3267 increased the nodule numbers in Obolo, Oboshie and Samnut 22 by 144%, 188% and 56%, respectively compared to their uninoculated counterparts. 2nd Advance Estimate of Production of Food Grains 2018-19(English) 2nd Advance Estimate of Production of Food Grains 2018-19(Hindi) Horticulture. Specifically, the study was to determine the appropriate rhizobium strain to enhance nodulation, growth and grain yield of groundnut, to determine whether the response of groundnut to the rhizobium strains is variety-dependent and also to investigate the interactive effects of inoculation and phosphorus application on the above responses of the groundnut varieties. More than 25% of the groundnut area harvested in the world is in India followed by 20% in China. number of pods per plant). Farmers are expanding groundnut farming every year after getting repeated bumper production and lucrative market prices in the last 12 years. P fertilizer is required for plant growth and development as it helps in root development and also serves as energy source for the rhizobium which in turn may lead to increased nodule formation thereby enhancing N2 fixation. 8/C, FR Tower, Panthapath, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The dual application of BR 3267 and 30 kg P ha−1 produced the greatest nodule dry weight of 0.69 g per plant with the lowest nodule dry weight of 0.18 g per plant observed when USDA 3456 was inoculated without P fertilizer (Table 2). Data were recorded on days to 50% flowering, nodule number, nodule dry weight, pod load, pod yield, haulm weight and seed size (as 100-seed weight). Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. 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