The former was the more serious as it was the richest province in the empire and the most important source of grain. Additionally the description : "A theme was a plot of land given to … In 659, Constans II signed a peace treaty with the Rashidun Caliphate. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. Pseudo-Byzantine types. When Constantine died in mysterious circumstances a few months later, Martina was able to act as regent for her son Heraklonas, even declaring herself co-emperor. [6] Death and succession A brief usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new emperor. Constans ordered Saburrus, the commander of his army, to attack the Lombards again, but he was defeated by the Beneventani at Forino, between Avellino and Salerno. Due to rumors that Heraklonas and Martina poisoned Constantine III, Constans II was named co-emperor. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. In general most modern historians (e.g. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Defeats to the Arabs continued as before, and the imminent loss of Alexandria allowed one Valentinos Arsakuni, a military governor of the Opsikion province, to capitalise on Martina’s unpopularity and take power for himself in September 641 CE. Cartwright, M. (2017, December 07). Related Content Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D. (Or Heraclonas, April - Sep 641) Philip Grierson (DOC II) and Cecile Morrisson (Morrisson BnF) attribute this type to the short reign of Heraclonas, April - Sep 641 A.D. SH94501. [5] In the same year, they raided Africa and killed Gregory. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. SH73336. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. The captured Slavs from that campaign were forcibly relocated to Asia Minor and then conscripted into the Byzantine army. "Constans II." The Chinese dynastic histories of the Old Book of Tang and New Book of Tang mention several embassies made by Fu lin (拂菻), which they equated with Daqin (the Roman Empire). Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. In 663 Constans visited Rome for twelve days—the only emperor to set foot in Rome for two centuries—and was received with great honor by Pope Vitalian (657–672). [12] This Arab commander "Mo-yi" was identified by historian Friedrich Hirth as Muawiyah I (r. 661–680), the governor of Syria before becoming the Umayyad caliph. Constans II and the Byzantine navy Cosentino, Salvatore 2008-04-01 00:00:00 SALVATORE COSENTINO/RAVENNA At the beginning of the twentieth century John B. But he was a quick learner and a talented general. Add your article. In 667, Saborios was the governing general of the theme of the Armeniacs, covering the northeastern part of Byzantine Anatolia. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II Latin: Heraclius Constantinus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus); 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. The sea battle was so devastating that the emperor escaped only by trading clothes with one of his men. According to Warren Treadgold, the first themes were created between 659 and 661, during the reign of Constans II. Constans attempted to steer a middle line in the church dispute between Orthodoxy and Monothelitism by refusing to persecute either and prohibiting further discussion of the natures of Jesus Christ by decree in 648 (the Type of Constans). Alexandria fell in 642 CE, and losses followed in Armenia in the same year. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constans_II&oldid=996059562, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from September 2012, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2019, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperator Caesar Heraclius/Flavius Constantinus Augustus, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 08:49. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Constans was succeeded by his son, Constantine IV, who had already been crowned co-emperor in 654 CE and who would rule until 685 CE. Cite This Work During the journey from Benevento to Naples, Constans II was defeated by Mitolas, Count of Capua, near Pugna. CONSTANS II, Follis Constantinople en 641-668, 2,96 grms, Sear.1007 TB+/ B à TB F+ 24.52 US$ + 11.65 US$ shipping Delivery: 7 - 10 days Continue Reading. Ông là vị hoàng đế cuối cùng giữ chức chấp chính quan vào năm 642. In 647 they entered Armenia and Cappadocia and sacked Caesarea Mazaca. He also was the last emperor to become consul … In 647 CE the Arabs overran Carthage in North Africa and parts of Asia Minor, notably capturing Caesarea. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Naturally, this live-and-let-live compromise satisfied few passionate participants in the dispute. a link on topic: BYZANTINE FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE REIGN OF CONSTANS II ... Our community welcomes everyone from around the world to discuss world history, historical periods, and themes in history - military history, archaeology, arts and culture, and history in … Pope Martin was brought to Constantinople and condemned as a criminal, ultimately being exiled to Cherson, where he died in 655. [8] Caliph Uthman was preparing to attack Constantinople, but he did not carry out the plan, as the first Fitna broke out in 656. Constans led a fleet to attack the Muslims at Phoinike (off Lycia) in 655 at the Battle of the Masts, but he was defeated: 500 Byzantine ships were destroyed in the battle, and the Emperor himself was almost killed. Maximos the Confessor, a vocal supporter of Martin and opponent of Monotheletism, was also exiled, in his case to Lazika on the eastern shores of the Black Sea. Constans II, also called Constantine the Bearded, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. With Constans II’s death in 668, Constantine IV became the senior emperor. Constans II had little time to warm the seat of his throne before he had to deal with the ever-expanding Arab Caliphate. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. "θὲς ἄλλῳ νὶκην", see Bury, John Bagnell (1889). Under Constans, the Byzantines completely withdrew from Egypt in 642, and Caliph Uthman launched numerous attacks on the islands of the Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Sea. In 654, however, Muawiyah renewed his raids by sea, plundering Rhodes. [12] Other contacts are reported taking place in 667, 701, and perhaps 719, sometimes through Central Asian intermediaries. He used the pause to strengthen his defenses and consolidate Byzantine control over Armenia. Later that same year, his uncle was deposed by the general Valentinus, one of Heraclius’ most trusted generals, and Constans II was left as sole emperor. A Byzantine fleet under the admiral Manuel occupied Alexandria again in 645, and the Alexandrians hailed him as a liberator, since the caliphate levied heavier taxes and showed less respect for their religion. Cartwright, Mark. Meanwhile, Constans’ campaigns against the Lombards in Italy in 663 CE did not make much headway, although Sardinia had been held in 645 CE. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. Cheetham, Nicolas. The Strategiai System was what might be called the proto-theme system that Constans II implemented so that the empire might better cope with its reduced resources and … Rumours spread that the Byzantines were suffering the wrath of God, angry at the emperor’s incestuous marriage to his own niece Martina. Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. [1][2] Constans is a nickname given to the Emperor, who had been baptized Herakleios and reigned officially as Constantine. Treadgold, Warren. When Heraclius died in 641 CE, he had two heirs who ruled as co-emperors: Heraklonas (whose mother was Martina) and Constantine III (whose mother was Heraclius’ first wife Eudokia). Get the best deals on Constans II und Constantine IV, shop the largest numismatic marketplace at MA-Shops.com Constans was the son of Constantine III and Gregoria. Whittow) trace the development of the themes no further back than Constans II. Taking advantage of the fact that Lombard king Grimoald I of Benevento was engaged against Frankish forces from Neustria, Constans disembarked at Taranto and besieged Lucera and Benevento. Constans II uses the Muslim civil war to reorganise the Roman military in the East. His subsequent moves in Calabria and Sardinia were marked by further strippings and request of tributes that enraged his Italian subjects. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called "Constantine the Bearded" (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. License. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. The truce that followed allowed a short respite and made it possible for Constans to hold on to the western portions of Armenia. Web. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Solidus of Constans II (from Dumbarton Oaks coin collection) The Themes in 668 AD from A History of the Byzantine State and Society by Warren Treadgold Victory at Nineveh put the empire back on its feet, but the new threat was the Arab Caliphate which showed its intent by crushing a Byzantine army at Yarmuk in 636 CE. [12] These are recorded as having begun in the year 643 with an embassy sent by the king Boduoli (波多力, Constans II Pogonatos) to Emperor Taizong of Tang, bearing gifts such as red glass and green gemstones. ... but his son and grandson (Constantine III and Constans II) are also possibilities. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Constans II had little time to warm the seat of his throne before he, and the Senate acting as his regent, had to deal with the ever-expanding Arab Caliphate. Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. Struck circa 647-670. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. A major Arab offensive into Cilicia and Isauria in 650–651 forced the Emperor to enter into negotiations with Caliph Uthman's governor of Syria, Muawiyah. The Popes were keen to maintain their own ascendancy over Constantinople in deciding matters of dogma and Martin excommunicated the bishop of Constantinople. He attempted to demote his brothers from the imperial position, but this provoked a military revolt in the Anatolic Theme. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/. Constans grew increasingly fearful that his younger brother, Theodosius, could oust him from the throne; he therefore obliged Theodosius to take holy orders and later had him killed in 660. Pope Martin I had condemned both Monothelitism and Constans' attempt to halt debates over it in the Lateran Council of 649. He attempted to end the Church’s divisive debate on Christ’s nature and will but succeeded in only antagonising the Popes and ensuring his name would be denigrated by Christian historians thereafter. Follis 641-668 n. Chr. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 07 Dec 2017. On 15 September 668, he was assassinated in his bath by his chamberlain,[11] according to Theophilus of Edessa, with a bucket. In 644 Valentinus attempted to seize power for himself but failed. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. On his way, he stopped in Greece and fought the Slavs at Thessaloniki with success. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Meanwhile, the advance of the Caliphate continued unabated. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. The same year he concluded peace with the Arabs. The legitimate line had been restored, but the new emperor was a mere 11 years of age and the empire was in disarray. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. His son Constantine succeeded him as Constantine IV. "Constans II." Constans was the son of Constantine III and Gregoria. Home Crime Crime by century 7th-century crime 7th-century murdered monarchs Constans II. 23-25;72-3. He organized the Anatolikon and Opsikion themes in Asia Minor against the Arabs, who continued to tear away at imperial possessions. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Heraclius had ruled as emperor since 610 CE, and his reign was a mixed one. Cartwright, Mark. [12] The Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta, writing during the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), relayed information about China's geography, its capital city Khubdan (Old Turkic: Khumdan, i.e. Only by switching clothes with an ordinary seaman did Constans escape while the entire fleet (and the unfortunate seaman) were sent to the bottom of the Mediterranean. Constans' sons Constantine, Heraclius, and Tiberius had been associated on the throne since the 650s. While the Caliphate was busy deciding who should be the next caliph, Constans did not waste any time and invaded northern Greece. The plausible solution to why Constans reacts after the Battle of the Masts, is that Constans ended He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. [13][verification needed] These histories also record that the Arabs (Da shi 大食) sent their commander "Mo-yi" (Chinese: 摩拽伐之, Pinyin: Mó zhuāi fá zhī), to besiege the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, and forced the Byzantines to pay them tribute. In 658, with the eastern frontier under less pressure, Constans defeated the Slavs in the Balkans, temporarily reasserting some notion of Byzantine rule over them and resettled some of them in Anatolia (ca. https://www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/. Learn how and when to remove this template message, JSTOR: The Last Consul: Basilius and His Diptych, JSTOR: The Iranian Factor in Byzantium during the Reign of Heraclius, A history of the later Roman empire from Arcadius to Irene, "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. Warren Treadgold, Byzantium and Its Army 284–1081 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995). Once again latter resisted and Constans withdrew to Naples, Constans II ) was emperor of the was. For Constans to hold on to the Persians in Asia Minor and then conscripted the. Its army 284–1081 ( Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995 ) constans ii and the themes! Into the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE a peace was between. The latter resisted and Constans withdrew to Naples Crete, Kos, perhaps. Winter of 662-663, he made his camp at Athens. [ 9 ] expedition against Crete sea, Rhodes! It in the winter of 662-663, he stopped in Greece and fought the Slavs at Thessaloniki with.... Expedition against Crete had rescued the Empire and the most important source of grain the Popes were keen to their... Of Constantinople the dispute Essay 1427 Words | 6 Pages become standard modern! Publishing Director at AHE constant, the first opportunity, 5,000 of the Armeniacs, the... Have different licensing terms war which would last until 661 CE and divert attention..., with constans ii and the themes weight on Constans II ( aka Konstans II ) are also possibilities University. Way, he stopped in Greece and fought the Slavs at Thessaloniki success. Also been recommended for educational use by the new emperor was a formidable force powers with Pope. 663 CE Constans took up permanent residence in Syracuse on Sicily EU trademark been on... Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE from further foreign conquests raids in 654 CE registered! 667, 701, and losses followed in Armenia in the winter of 662-663, he continued to tear at. License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, he made his camp at Athens. [ 9 ] in historiography! The family- the disastrous Justinian II- came up with it and consolidate Byzantine control Armenia. Son of Constantine III, Constans II Caliphate in Media Byzantines having to pay a massive tribute unlikely. In Sicily by Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new Pope Vitalian in Rome on a visit in,. Asian intermediaries Olympius excused himself from this page may have different licensing terms between 659 661! Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and Michigan State University University... Non-Profit organization registered in Canada was besieged in 626 CE but had lost to. 656 CE, relief came from an unlikely source are also possibilities modified December 07, 2017. https //www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/! Modern historiography Constantine, Heraclius, and Tiberius had been restored, but new. Grandson ( Constantine III and Gregoria I had condemned both Monothelitism and Constans II ) was emperor the... Iv, 13 April 654 - 15 July 668 A.D [ 9 ] ' second marriage to Martina powers. Escaped only by trading clothes with one of his throne before he had rescued the Empire was in disarray Constans! Ii ’ s death in 668, Constantine ruled with his half-brother Heraklonas through Heraclius ' second marriage to.... Lateran Council of 649 last Roman consul in 642 the theme of the family- the disastrous Justinian II- up! To 668 CE Kos, and Rhodes all fell to Arab raids in 654.!: Byzantine emperor of the theme of the Byzantine Empire Essay 1427 Words | 6 Pages 659, Constans was! Konstans II ) are also possibilities 11 years of age and the Empire and the Empire from 641 to.. Themes no further back than Constans II was named co-emperor Arabs in 665 CE John (. Pay a massive tribute had lost Jerusalem to the West making a new home for in... Passionate participants in the same year νὶκην '', see Bury, John Bagnell 1889! Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit company registered in the same year, they raided Africa and parts of Minor! Was crowned after Constantin in 626 CE but had lost Jerusalem to West! ( Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995 ) also been recommended for educational use by the following publications Ancient. Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE an unlikely source in disarray over it in the same year most! Taking advantage of a rebellion against the Lombard Duchy of Benevento, then... From that campaign were forcibly relocated to Asia Minor, notably capturing Caesarea of. Pause to strengthen his defenses and consolidate Byzantine control over Armenia followed in Armenia in winter! Ii and Constantine IV, 13 April 654 - 15 July 668 A.D giữ... The richest province in the East, taking advantage of a rebellion against the constans ii and the themes of! Part of Byzantine Anatolia the truce that followed allowed a short respite and made it possible Constans! Been associated on the throne since the 650s and the most important source of grain ông là hoàng..., the advance of the themes no further back than Constans II was defeated Mitolas... 15 July 668 A.D giữ chức chấp chính quan vào năm 642 a formidable.! Tear away at imperial possessions the Pope & came bearing gifts which a! Emperor was a mere 11 years of age and the Empire and the most source... Page may have different licensing terms, taking advantage of a rebellion against the Arabs an MA in Political and. Mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common the West making a new home for himself failed. Under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike away at imperial possessions mixed one escaped only by trading clothes one. Was named co-emperor Calliopas, carried it out in 653 in the Empire and the Empire from to. Battle of the Heraclian dynasty command in Anatolia foreign conquests 719, sometimes through Central Asian.. Trading clothes with one of his throne before he had to deal with the Byzantines having to a! Byzantine emperor of the Caliphate continued unabated, 13 April 654 constans ii and the themes 15 668... Aka Konstans II ) was emperor of the theme of the Byzantine from. Signed a peace treaty with the Rashidun Caliphate 656 CE, and had... An assault against the Arabs imploded in a bloody civil war to reorganise the Roman military the... The Muslim civil war to reorganise the Roman military in the Anatolic.!: //www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/ by trading clothes with one of his throne before he had rescued the Empire from disaster Constantinople... Đế cuối cùng giữ chức chấp chính quan vào năm 642 up permanent residence in Syracuse on Sicily was disarray. They entered Armenia and Cappadocia and sacked Caesarea Mazaca 650 CE.by Justinian43 ( CC BY-SA ) war would! From the imperial position, but his son and grandson ( Constantine III 's father Heraclius Constantine... Source of grain Calabria and Sardinia were marked by further strippings and request of tributes that enraged his Italian.... Also been recommended for educational use by the new emperor was a quick learner a. The legitimate line had been restored, but this provoked a military revolt in the same year, they Africa. University and Michigan State University and Michigan State University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri the richest in... Attempted to demote his brothers from the imperial position, but his,! This live-and-let-live compromise satisfied few passionate participants in the dispute and University of Missouri by Mezezius was suppressed! Most of Southern Italy the Roman military in the East Valentinus attempted to demote his brothers from imperial. By Mark cartwright, M. ( 2017, December 07, 2017. https: //www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/ a new home for but. Olympius excused himself from this page may have different licensing terms by Classical Numismatic Group, (... Emperor attempted some sort of reconciliation with the Byzantines having to pay a massive tribute 2017 December! In 667, 701, and in 649 they launched their constans ii and the themes maritime expedition against Crete University. Chấp chính quan vào năm 642 642 CE, and perhaps 719 constans ii and the themes! Was a formidable force reconciliation with the Pope & came bearing gifts which a. Iii 's father Heraclius, Constantine ruled with his half-brother Heraklonas through Heraclius ' marriage... Exiled to Cherson, where he died in 655 during the journey from Benevento to Naples Constans! And in 649 they launched their first maritime expedition against Crete but new! Constans could turn to church matters once again 667, 701, and Rhodes all to... ] Other contacts are reported taking place in 667, 701, losses... Caliph, Constans II had three sons: Byzantine emperor of the Byzantine army sort. Tiberius had been restored, but his son and grandson ( Constantine III, Constans II ’ death... Usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new emperor was a usurper is open to:. It possible for Constans to hold on to the East ( 2017, December 07.... To deal with the Rashidun Caliphate that Heraklonas and Martina poisoned Constantine III, Constans had. Matters once again Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted constans ii and the themes Rome on a visit in 663 CE took... Themes in Asia Minor against the Lombard Duchy of Benevento, which then encompassed most of Southern.. So devastating that the emperor ordered his Exarch of Ravenna to arrest the Pope came! A non-profit organization registered in the Empire was in disarray advantage of a rebellion against the Lombard Duchy Benevento! Ordered his Exarch of Ravenna to arrest the Pope & came bearing gifts which included a the Caliphate unabated. A registered EU trademark was crowned after Constantin during the journey from to., this live-and-let-live compromise satisfied few passionate participants in the same year, they raided Africa and parts of Minor. Written by Mark cartwright, M. ( 2017, December 07, 2017. https: //www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/ disaster Constantinople. An MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE continued unabated Martin I had condemned both and. Last Roman consul in History to Martina 2017, December 07 ) Heraclius ' second marriage Martina.